Too much treatment is dangerous just like too little treatment. Treating blood pressure too early or too aggressively increases the risk of death. Treating elderly patients with diabetes with too much medicine increases episodes of low blood sugar that damage the brain and leads to broken bones from falling.
In 2014 the national guidelines for blood pressure treatment were changed to allow a higher blood pressure. Similarly, a recent study found increased mortality for elderly patients treated too strongly for diabetes.
This is not rocket science. Imagine a blood pressure medication that could lower the blood pressure to any level. Knowing that zero blood pressure means you are dead, it stands to reason there is a point where treating blood pressure goes from helpful to dangerous. Same for blood sugar.
Sometimes this problem is called “treating the test“. In essence prescribers just look at the numbers and write a prescription, but ignore symptoms of weakness or spells of altered consciousness. Hypertension and diabetes are good examples but this happens with lots of other conditions.
Examples of over-treatment include treating a sore throat with antibiotics, treating mild asthma with oral steroids, or treating an elevated lyme serology test with antibiotics. It takes time to make a correct diagnosis and time to explain treatment to patients — some health care providers simply don’t take the time to do either.
Most drugs have a “therapeutic window“. As long as the window is open the patient gets benefit. But, the window closes due to side effects and advanced age.
If a person is over 80 or in poor health excessive medical treatment is a substantial risk. In this group even the thought of a low cholesterol diet is foolhardy. It’s all about risks and benefits.